Conscious sedation

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The following centers practice conscious sedation:

Bonati Spine Institute

Atlantic Spine Center

Fusion under conscious sedation

Thoracic and lumbar spinal surgery under local anesthesia for patients with multiple comorbidities: A consecutive case series - article from Pakistan

'Awake' Lumbar Fusion Offers Eye-Opening Recovery Improvement - Michael Y. Wang, MD, professor and spine director in the Department of Neurological Surgery & Rehab Medicine at the Miller School of Medicine at the University of Miami in Florida

Endoscopic minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion without general anesthesia: initial clinical experience with 1-year follow-up